Table of Contents

Store #

The thanos store command (also known as Store Gateway) implements the Store API on top of historical data in an object storage bucket. It acts primarily as an API gateway and therefore does not need significant amounts of local disk space. It joins a Thanos cluster on startup and advertises the data it can access. It keeps a small amount of information about all remote blocks on local disk and keeps it in sync with the bucket. This data is generally safe to delete across restarts at the cost of increased startup times.

thanos store \
    --data-dir        "/local/state/data/dir" \
    --objstore.config-file "bucket.yml"

The content of bucket.yml:

type: GCS
config:
  bucket: example-bucket

In general about 1MB of local disk space is required per TSDB block stored in the object storage bucket.

Flags #

usage: thanos store [<flags>]

store node giving access to blocks in a bucket provider. Now supported GCS, S3,
Azure, Swift and Tencent COS.

Flags:
  -h, --help                     Show context-sensitive help (also try
                                 --help-long and --help-man).
      --version                  Show application version.
      --log.level=info           Log filtering level.
      --log.format=logfmt        Log format to use. Possible options: logfmt or
                                 json.
      --tracing.config-file=<file-path>
                                 Path to YAML file with tracing configuration.
                                 See format details:
                                 https://thanos.io/tip/tracing.md/#configuration
      --tracing.config=<content>
                                 Alternative to 'tracing.config-file' flag
                                 (lower priority). Content of YAML file with
                                 tracing configuration. See format details:
                                 https://thanos.io/tip/tracing.md/#configuration
      --http-address="0.0.0.0:10902"
                                 Listen host:port for HTTP endpoints.
      --http-grace-period=2m     Time to wait after an interrupt received for
                                 HTTP Server.
      --grpc-address="0.0.0.0:10901"
                                 Listen ip:port address for gRPC endpoints
                                 (StoreAPI). Make sure this address is routable
                                 from other components.
      --grpc-grace-period=2m     Time to wait after an interrupt received for
                                 GRPC Server.
      --grpc-server-tls-cert=""  TLS Certificate for gRPC server, leave blank to
                                 disable TLS
      --grpc-server-tls-key=""   TLS Key for the gRPC server, leave blank to
                                 disable TLS
      --grpc-server-tls-client-ca=""
                                 TLS CA to verify clients against. If no client
                                 CA is specified, there is no client
                                 verification on server side. (tls.NoClientCert)
      --data-dir="./data"        Local data directory used for caching purposes
                                 (index-header, in-mem cache items and
                                 meta.jsons). If removed, no data will be lost,
                                 just store will have to rebuild the cache.
                                 NOTE: Putting raw blocks here will not cause
                                 the store to read them. For such use cases use
                                 Prometheus + sidecar.
      --index-cache-size=250MB   Maximum size of items held in the in-memory
                                 index cache. Ignored if --index-cache.config or
                                 --index-cache.config-file option is specified.
      --index-cache.config-file=<file-path>
                                 Path to YAML file that contains index cache
                                 configuration. See format details:
                                 https://thanos.io/tip/components/store.md/#index-cache
      --index-cache.config=<content>
                                 Alternative to 'index-cache.config-file' flag
                                 (lower priority). Content of YAML file that
                                 contains index cache configuration. See format
                                 details:
                                 https://thanos.io/tip/components/store.md/#index-cache
      --chunk-pool-size=2GB      Maximum size of concurrently allocatable bytes
                                 reserved strictly to reuse for chunks in
                                 memory.
      --store.grpc.series-sample-limit=0
                                 Maximum amount of samples returned via a single
                                 Series call. The Series call fails if this
                                 limit is exceeded. 0 means no limit. NOTE: For
                                 efficiency the limit is internally implemented
                                 as 'chunks limit' considering each chunk
                                 contains 120 samples (it's the max number of
                                 samples each chunk can contain), so the actual
                                 number of samples might be lower, even though
                                 the maximum could be hit.
      --store.grpc.series-max-concurrency=20
                                 Maximum number of concurrent Series calls.
      --objstore.config-file=<file-path>
                                 Path to YAML file that contains object store
                                 configuration. See format details:
                                 https://thanos.io/tip/thanos/storage.md/#configuration
      --objstore.config=<content>
                                 Alternative to 'objstore.config-file' flag
                                 (lower priority). Content of YAML file that
                                 contains object store configuration. See format
                                 details:
                                 https://thanos.io/tip/thanos/storage.md/#configuration
      --sync-block-duration=3m   Repeat interval for syncing the blocks between
                                 local and remote view.
      --block-sync-concurrency=20
                                 Number of goroutines to use when constructing
                                 index-cache.json blocks from object storage.
      --min-time=0000-01-01T00:00:00Z
                                 Start of time range limit to serve. Thanos
                                 Store will serve only metrics, which happened
                                 later than this value. Option can be a constant
                                 time in RFC3339 format or time duration
                                 relative to current time, such as -1d or 2h45m.
                                 Valid duration units are ms, s, m, h, d, w, y.
      --max-time=9999-12-31T23:59:59Z
                                 End of time range limit to serve. Thanos Store
                                 will serve only blocks, which happened eariler
                                 than this value. Option can be a constant time
                                 in RFC3339 format or time duration relative to
                                 current time, such as -1d or 2h45m. Valid
                                 duration units are ms, s, m, h, d, w, y.
      --selector.relabel-config-file=<file-path>
                                 Path to YAML file that contains relabeling
                                 configuration that allows selecting blocks. It
                                 follows native Prometheus relabel-config
                                 syntax. See format details:
                                 https://prometheus.io/docs/prometheus/latest/configuration/configuration/#relabel_config
      --selector.relabel-config=<content>
                                 Alternative to 'selector.relabel-config-file'
                                 flag (lower priority). Content of YAML file
                                 that contains relabeling configuration that
                                 allows selecting blocks. It follows native
                                 Prometheus relabel-config syntax. See format
                                 details:
                                 https://prometheus.io/docs/prometheus/latest/configuration/configuration/#relabel_config
      --consistency-delay=0s     Minimum age of all blocks before they are being
                                 read. Set it to safe value (e.g 30m) if your
                                 object storage is eventually consistent. GCS
                                 and S3 are (roughly) strongly consistent.
      --ignore-deletion-marks-delay=24h
                                 Duration after which the blocks marked for
                                 deletion will be filtered out while fetching
                                 blocks. The idea of ignore-deletion-marks-delay
                                 is to ignore blocks that are marked for
                                 deletion with some delay. This ensures store
                                 can still serve blocks that are meant to be
                                 deleted but do not have a replacement yet. If
                                 delete-delay duration is provided to compactor
                                 or bucket verify component, it will upload
                                 deletion-mark.json file to mark after what
                                 duration the block should be deleted rather
                                 than deleting the block straight away. If
                                 delete-delay is non-zero for compactor or
                                 bucket verify component,
                                 ignore-deletion-marks-delay should be set to
                                 (delete-delay)/2 so that blocks marked for
                                 deletion are filtered out while fetching blocks
                                 before being deleted from bucket. Default is
                                 24h, half of the default value for
                                 --delete-delay on compactor.
      --web.external-prefix=""   Static prefix for all HTML links and redirect
                                 URLs in the bucket web UI interface. Actual
                                 endpoints are still served on / or the
                                 web.route-prefix. This allows thanos bucket web
                                 UI to be served behind a reverse proxy that
                                 strips a URL sub-path.
      --web.prefix-header=""     Name of HTTP request header used for dynamic
                                 prefixing of UI links and redirects. This
                                 option is ignored if web.external-prefix
                                 argument is set. Security risk: enable this
                                 option only if a reverse proxy in front of
                                 thanos is resetting the header. The
                                 --web.prefix-header=X-Forwarded-Prefix option
                                 can be useful, for example, if Thanos UI is
                                 served via Traefik reverse proxy with
                                 PathPrefixStrip option enabled, which sends the
                                 stripped prefix value in X-Forwarded-Prefix
                                 header. This allows thanos UI to be served on a
                                 sub-path.

Time based partitioning #

By default Thanos Store Gateway looks at all the data in Object Store and returns it based on query’s time range.

Thanos Store --min-time, --max-time flags allows you to shard Thanos Store based on constant time or time duration relative to current time.

For example setting: --min-time=-6w & --max-time==-2w will make Thanos Store Gateway return metrics that fall within now - 6 weeks up to now - 2 weeks time range.

Constant time needs to be set in RFC3339 format. For example --min-time=2018-01-01T00:00:00Z, --max-time=2019-01-01T23:59:59Z.

Thanos Store Gateway might not get new blocks immediately, as Time partitioning is partly done in asynchronous block synchronization job, which is by default done every 3 minutes. Additionally some of the Object Store implementations provide eventual read-after-write consistency, which means that Thanos Store might not immediately get newly created & uploaded blocks anyway.

We recommend having overlapping time ranges with Thanos Sidecar and other Thanos Store gateways as this will improve your resiliency to failures.

Thanos Querier deals with overlapping time series by merging them together.

Filtering is done on a Chunk level, so Thanos Store might still return Samples which are outside of --min-time & --max-time.

Probes #

  • Thanos Store exposes two endpoints for probing.
    • /-/healthy starts as soon as initial setup completed.
    • /-/ready starts after all the bootstrapping completed (e.g initial index building) and ready to serve traffic.

NOTE: Metric endpoint starts immediately so, make sure you set up readiness probe on designated HTTP /-/ready path.

Index cache #

Thanos Store Gateway supports an index cache to speed up postings and series lookups from TSDB blocks indexes. Two types of caches are supported:

  • in-memory (default)
  • memcached

In-memory index cache #

The in-memory index cache is enabled by default and its max size can be configured through the flag --index-cache-size.

Alternatively, the in-memory index cache can also by configured using --index-cache.config-file to reference to the configuration file or --index-cache.config to put yaml config directly:

type: IN-MEMORY
config:
  max_size: 0
  max_item_size: 0

All the settings are optional:

  • max_size: overall maximum number of bytes cache can contain. The value should be specified with a bytes unit (ie. 250MB).
  • max_item_size: maximum size of single item, in bytes. The value should be specified with a bytes unit (ie. 125MB).

Memcached index cache #

The memcached index cache allows to use Memcached as cache backend. This cache type is configured using --index-cache.config-file to reference to the configuration file or --index-cache.config to put yaml config directly:

type: MEMCACHED
config:
  addresses: []
  timeout: 0s
  max_idle_connections: 0
  max_async_concurrency: 0
  max_async_buffer_size: 0
  max_get_multi_concurrency: 0
  max_item_size: 0
  max_get_multi_batch_size: 0
  dns_provider_update_interval: 0s

The required settings are:

While the remaining settings are optional:

  • timeout: the socket read/write timeout.
  • max_idle_connections: maximum number of idle connections that will be maintained per address.
  • max_async_concurrency: maximum number of concurrent asynchronous operations can occur.
  • max_async_buffer_size: maximum number of enqueued asynchronous operations allowed.
  • max_get_multi_concurrency: maximum number of concurrent connections when fetching keys. If set to 0, the concurrency is unlimited.
  • max_get_multi_batch_size: maximum number of keys a single underlying operation should fetch. If more keys are specified, internally keys are splitted into multiple batches and fetched concurrently, honoring max_get_multi_concurrency. If set to 0, the batch size is unlimited.
  • max_item_size: maximum size of an item to be stored in memcached. This option should be set to the same value of memcached -I flag (defaults to 1MB) in order to avoid wasting network round trips to store items larger than the max item size allowed in memcached. If set to 0, the item size is unlimited.
  • dns_provider_update_interval: the DNS discovery update interval.

Caching Bucket #

Thanos Store Gateway supports a “caching bucket” with chunks and metadata caching to speed up loading of chunks from TSDB blocks. To configure caching, one needs to use --store.caching-bucket.config=<yaml content> or --store.caching-bucket.config-file=<file.yaml>.

Currently only memcached “backend” is supported:

type: MEMCACHED # Case-insensitive
config:
  addresses:
    - localhost:11211

chunk_subrange_size: 16000
max_chunks_get_range_requests: 3
chunk_object_attrs_ttl: 24h
chunk_subrange_ttl: 24h
blocks_iter_ttl: 5m
metafile_exists_ttl: 2h
metafile_doesnt_exist_ttl: 15m
metafile_content_ttl: 24h
metafile_max_size: 1MiB

config field for memcached supports all the same configuration as memcached for index cache.

Additional options to configure various aspects of chunks cache are available:

  • chunk_subrange_size: size of segment of chunks object that is stored to the cache. This is the smallest unit that chunks cache is working with.
  • max_chunks_get_range_requests: how many “get range” sub-requests may cache perform to fetch missing subranges.
  • chunk_object_attrs_ttl: how long to keep information about chunk file attributes (e.g. size) in the cache.
  • chunk_subrange_ttl: how long to keep individual subranges in the cache.

Following options are used for metadata caching (meta.json files, deletion mark files, iteration result):

  • blocks_iter_ttl: how long to cache result of iterating blocks.
  • metafile_exists_ttl: how long to cache information about whether meta.json or deletion mark file exists.
  • metafile_doesnt_exist_ttl: how long to cache information about whether meta.json or deletion mark file doesn’t exist.
  • metafile_content_ttl: how long to cache content of meta.json and deletion mark files.
  • metafile_max_size: maximum size of cached meta.json and deletion mark file. Larger files are not cached.

Note that chunks and metadata cache is an experimental feature, and these fields may be renamed or removed completely in the future.

Index Header #

In order to query series inside blocks from object storage, Store Gateway has to know certain initial info from each block index. In order to achieve so, on startup the Gateway builds an index-header for each block and stores it on local disk; such index-header is build downloading specific pieces of original block’s index, stored on local disk and then mmaped and used by Store Gateway.

For more information, please refer to the Binary index-header operational guide.


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